Python Libraries and Packages are a set of useful modules and functions that minimize the use of code in our day to day life. There are over 137,000 python libraries and 198,826 python packages ready to ease developers’ regular programming experience. These libraries and packages are intended for a variety of modern-day solutions.
Python libraries and python packages play a vital role in our everyday machine learning. In fact, their use is not limited to machine learning only. Data Science, image and data manipulation, data visualization – everything is a part of their generous applications.
Best Python Libraries and Packages
Python Packages are a set of python modules, while python libraries are a group of python functions aimed to carry out special tasks. However, in this article, we are going to discuss both the libraries and the packages (and some toolkits also) for your ease.
Pillow is actually a fork of PIL – Python Image Library. At first, pillow was mainly based on the PIL code-structure. But later, it transformed into something more friendly and better. Experts say Pillow is actually a modern version of PIL. However, pillow is your trusted company while working with images or any type of image format.
Features Of Pillow
- Using Pillow, you can not only open and save images but also influence the environment of images as well.
- Pillow supports a lot of file types such as PDF, WebP, PCX, PNG, JPEG, GIF, PSD, WebP, PCX, GIF, IM, EPS, ICO, BMP, and many others as well.
- With Pillow, you can easily create thumbnails for images. Thumbnails bear most of the valuable aspects of your image.
- Pillow supports a collection of image filters – FIND_EDGES, DETAIL, SMOOTH, BLUR, CONTOUR, SHARPEN, SMOOTH_MORE, and others.
- Pillow offers great support from the community who are eager to answer, challenge, and work through any of your inquiries.
Matplotlib is a Python library that uses Python Script to write 2-dimensional graphs and plots. Often mathematical or scientific applications require more than single axes in a representation. This library helps us to build multiple plots at a time. You can, however, use Matplotlib to manipulate different characteristics of figures as well.
Features Of Matplotlib
- Matplotlib can create such quality figures that are really good for publication. Figures you create with Matplotlib are available in hardcopy formats across different interactive platforms.
- You can use MatPlotlib with different toolkits such as Python Scripts, IPython Shells, Jupyter Notebook, and many other four graphical user interfaces.
- A number of third-party libraries can be integrated with Matplotlib applications. Such as seaborn, ggplot, and other projection and mapping toolkits such as basemap.
- An active community of developers is dedicated to helping you with any of your inquiries with Matplotlib. Their contribution to Matplotlib is highly praisable.
- Good thing is that you can track any bugs, new patches, and feature requests on the issue tracker page from Github. It is an official page for featuring different issues related to Matplotlib.
Numpy is a popular array – processing package of Python. It provides good support for different dimensional array objects as well as for matrices. Numpy is not only confined to providing arrays only, but it also provides a variety of tools to manage these arrays. It is fast, efficient, and really good for managing matrice and arrays.
Features Of Numpy
- Arrays of Numpy offer modern mathematical implementations on huge amount of data. Numpy makes the execution of these projects much easier and hassle-free.
- Numpy provides masked arrays along with general array objects. It also comes with functionalities such as manipulation of logical shapes, discrete Fourier transform, general linear algebra, and many more.
- While you change the shape of any N-dimensional arrays, Numpy will create new arrays for that and delete the old ones.
- This python package provides useful tools for integration. You can easily integrate Numpy with programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran code.
- Numpy provides such functionalities that are comparable to MATLAB. They both allow users to get faster with operations.
04. OpenCV Python
OpenCV, a.k.a Open Source Computer Vision is a python package for image processing. It monitors overall functions that are focused on instant computer vision. Although OpenCV has no proper documentation, according to many developers, it is one of the hardest libraries to learn. However, it does provide many inbuilt functions through which you learn Computer vision easily.
Features Of OpenCV
- OpenCV is an ideal image processing package that allows you to both read and write images at the same time.
- Computer Vision allows you to rebuild, interrupt, and comprehend a 3D environment from its respective 2D environment.
- This package allows you to diagnose special objects in any videos or images. Objects such as faces, eyes, trees, etc.
- You can also save and capture any moment of a video and also analyze its different properties such as motion, background, etc.
- OpenCV is compatible with many operating systems such as Windows, OS-X, Open BSD, and many others.
Requests is a rich Python HTTP library. Released under Apache2.0 license, Requests is focused on making HTTP requests more responsive and user-friendly. This python library is a real blessing for beginners as it allows the use of most common methods of HTTP. You can easily customize, inspect, authorize, and configure HTTP requests using this library.
Features Of Requests
- Using basic Python Dictionaries in Requests, you can add parameters, headers, multi-part files, and form data as well.
- It is an easy library with tons of features that allow you to address custom headers, SSL certificate verifications, and sweep parameters towards URLs.
- With Requests, you can easily upload multiple files at a time. It allows you to work in a faster and efficient environment.
- Requests features automatic decompression that allows you to restore and revive compressed data into its authentic form in no time.
- Enjoy the benefits of HTTP proxy support with Requests. And allow your users with a faster and simpler route to your files and pages.
- Requests also features with value cookies, Unicode response bodies, Basic/Digest authentication, thread safety, connection pooling, and many more.
People who want to learn deep neural networks, Keras can be a real good choice for them. Keras is an open-source deep neural network library. It is written in Python. Keras provides an effective inspection policy over detailed networks. Developers who work with Keras are impressed with its user-friendly and modular structure.
Features Of Keras
- Keras is a powerful python library. It is capable of running on Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, PaidML, TensorFlow, and other platforms as well.
- This python library features a variety of implementations from neural network forming blocks – functions, layers, optimizers, objectives, and others.
- Keras also features many useful tools that allow you to work with different images and texts easily.
- It doesn’t only support neural networks only but also provides a fully supportive environment for convolutional and re-current neural networks.
- Using Keras, you can build deep models for smartphones – both Android and iOS or for Java Virtual Machine also.
TensorFlow is a free, open-source python machine learning library. It is very easy to learn and has a handful collection of useful tools. However, it is not limited to machine learning only; you can also use it for dataflow and programs that are differentiable. You can easily get to work with TensorFlow by installing Colab Notebooks in any browser you use.
Features Of TensorFlow
- TensorFlow uses automatic high-performance APIs such as – Keras. It offers an immediate iteration of machine learning models.
- This library features eager execution, which allows you to create, manipulate machine learning models, and make the debugging way easier.
- With TensorFlow, you can easily move your ML models in clouds, on any device and on-premises in any browser.
- TensorFlow comes with an easy to learn architecture. You can easily develop your concept into code and make your publications even easier.
- It has a solution to all of your common machine learning issues. You can easily implement it and go for giving your best.
Theano is a python library and a compiler for feasible computer programs – a.k.a an optimizing compiler. It can analyze, describe, optimize, and influence different mathematical declarations at the same time. As Theano makes the best use of multi-dimensional arrays, you hardly have to worry about the perfection of your projects.
Features Of Theano
- Theano can work really good with GPUs. It can also execute different symbolic differentiation of one/ many inputs.
- It features such an interface that is quite similar to Numpy’s. This is why numpy.ndarrays are also internally available in Theano.
- Theano allows you to avoid dirty bugs while working with expressions. You can work seamlessly on expressions without wasting any time.
- This library makes computation 140x faster. Computation of data-intensive applications is easier with Theano.
- It also offers many useful tools that can detect and analyze harmful bugs and serious problems.
09. NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit)
NLTK a.k.a Natural language toolkit is one of the most popular python NLP libraries. It is a set of language processing libraries and other programs that cumulatively provide a numerical and symbolic language processing solution for English only. It is written in Python. With NLTK, natural language processing with python has become more standard and ideal.
Features Of NLTK
- The text processing libraries of NLTK allow classification, tagging, tokenization, stemming, parsing, and semantic reasoning as well.
- NLTK contains a graphical illustration of data science. It also comes with a handbook for guiding through the principles of language processing for NLTK.
- It is open source and contains over fifty corpora and lexical resources such as open multilingual wordnet, question classification, SentiWordNet, SEMCOR, Stopwords Corpus, and many more.
- NLTK also features structure types, structure strings parsing, features different pathways, and re-entrance as well.
- This toolkit comes with a dynamic discussion forum where you can discuss and bring up any issues related to language NLTK.
Fire is an open-source python library. It can automatically generate CLIs (command-line interfaces). Even to do so, you will be just needing a few lines of code. Fire is a powerful library that can derive CLIs from literally any python objects. It is used by Google as well to create a command line and different experiment management tools as well.
Features Of Fire
- Python Objects that Fire can work with are – modules, objects, classes, lists, dicts, etc.
- The CLIs generated with fire are adaptable to any changes you bring to your code. They will get automatically updated once you change code.
- The CLIs come in complete form with automated help-pages, completion of the tab, and within a very interactive system.
- It is a very simple library. It can write and send commands at an instance when one calls Fire ().
- Fire comes with a linear output. Once you use fire, you won’t be needing any docstrings, as well.
Arrow is a practical python library. It is a friendly library that basically works with dates and times. Arrow comes with a smart API. This API supports many general schemes. It is an interesting library. Beginners with basic knowledge of coding can get pretty well with Arrow.
Features Of Arrow
- Arrow can generate, influence, remove and convert dates and times. It executes the quick updates of date-time type, plugging gaps, and many things as well.
- It supports different versions of python. Versions include Python 2.7, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and 3.8.
- You can easily create a variety of general input scenarios with Arrow. Arrow provides the most simple creation method.
- Arrow can eliminate and resolve strings within a natural process. It’s a time-sensitive library and set to UTC by default.
- You can easily convert timezone. It offers timestamp as a general property. You can also extend this library for your own arrow derived kinds.
- Arrow can create time-spans, ceiling, range, the floor for time frames. These time frames can range from microseconds to years.
FlashText is another python library that offers easy search and replacement of words from documents. All FlashText needs is a set of words and string. Then it identifies some words as keywords and replaces them from Text Data. It is a very effective library. People who are struggling with word replacement can choose it with confidence.
Features Of FlashText
- FlashText reserves keywords as Trie Data Structure. It is a very efficient and dynamic form of data structure.
- FlashText is a quick library. Besides speed, it also provides a variety of string manipulation.
- For keywords replacement, it makes an updated string. And while performing a search, it will return the keyword list to the string.
- FlashText is ideal for large inquiry. When the number of keywords exceeds 500, you should think of giving it a try.
- However, FlashText doesn’t support searching part of words or special characters such as *, ), -, #, and others.
Scipy is an open-source python library that is used for both scientific and technical computation. It is a free python library. And very suitable for machine learning. However, computation is not the only task that makes scipy special. It is also very popular for image manipulation, as well.
Features Of Scipy
- Scipy contains different modules. These modules are suitable for optimization, integration, linear algebra, and statistics, as well.
- It makes the best use of Numpy arrays for general data structures. In fact, Numpy is an integrated part of Scipy.
- Scipy can handle 1-d polynomials in two ways. Whether you can use poly1d class from numpy or you can use co-efficient arrays to do the job.
- High-level scipy contains not only numpy but also numpy.lib.scimath as well. But it is better to use them from their direct source.
- A supporting community of Scipy is always there to answer your regular questions and solve any issues if aroused.
Our next one on the list is a Database Abstraction Library for Python. SQLAlchemy comes with astounding support for a broad range of databases and layouts as possible. It provides a professional level of consistent patterns, developed for efficiency. It is easy to understand; for beginners as well. And featured with a really adjustable system.
Features Of SQLAlchemy
- SQLAlchemy is featured with a fully-featured core. It comes with SQL based abstraction toolkits.
- Another component of SQLAlchemy – ORM manages the insert/ update/ delete functionalities into a row to deliver them in a batch.
- SQLAlchemy makes communication between Python language and databases easier. It fastens the communication as well.
- It supports almost all modern platforms, including – Python 2.5 and above, Jython and Pypy as well.
- With SQLAlchemy, you can map classes in different ways. You can also develop database schemes and object models from scratch.
wxPython is a GUI toolkit for python. It is a powerful wrapper for many computer software that can be implemented on a variety of digital platforms. Many professionals have found wxPython very effective as an alternative to Tkinter. It is applied as an extension module of Python.
Features Of wxPython
- Manage and customize your layouts easily with wxPython. It uses nested HBOX and VBOX, which are really easy to implement.
- It supports all popular operating systems such as Windows, Mac, and Linux, as well. It is a good choice for cross-platform python.
- However, in wxPython, you might have to bring some changes to the GUI code. The changes are based on the platform you are using.
- Unlike other Python wrappers, wxPython comes with a simple installation process. It is very easy to install on Windows and Linux.
- wxPython comes with a lot of features. It is a front-end library for wxWidgets that offers a sophisticated design-layout for developers.
Cirq is a python library generally for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) circuits. Cirq works into depth and focuses on revealing the detail components of the hardware. However, currently, it is in the alpha stage. Developers are working on the breaking changes. Once the new version is released, they will break your code.
Features Of Cirq
- Cirq allows you to write, modify, and manipulate quantum circuits. Then it runs them against different computers and simulators that can perform quantum computing.
- Details that are exposed by Cirq are essential for determining the possibility of a circuit execution.
- Cirq is designed in such a way that it can support many quantum-based hardware and cloud processors.
- With this library, you will have clean and neat control over quantum circuits. You can also use native gates to analyze gate behavior and many more.
- The library optimizes data structures to write and assemble quantum circuits. This way, you can utilize the most of NISQ circuits.
PyTorch is an open-source python machine learning library. It is based on the Torch library and was initially developed by the A.I researcher group of facebook. The good thing about PyTorch is, it can be used for multi- variational applications like computer vision and NLP (natural language processing) as well.
Features Of PyTorch
- PyTorch uses TorchScript, which offers a flexible and simple eager mode. You can evaluate different functions and operations instantly.
- While in the graph mode, PyTorch provides absolute transitioning, fast optimizations, and offers a C++ run-time environment.
- PyTorch has a good support for async. execution for cumulative operations. This way, you can boost up your project performance.
- This library also allows P2P (Peer to Peer) communication, which can be gained by both Python and C++.
- PyTorch can be used with other popular libraries, as well. You can easily integrate it with libraries/packages like Cython and Numba.
- With PyTorch, you can get direct access to platforms, visualizers, and runtimes that are compatible with ONNX.
Luminoth is a python built toolkit – dedicated for computer vision. It is an alpha quality release, and the last version was released in November 2018. Currently, it supports the seamless detection of an object, but in the near future, it can do more. To use Luminoth, one must install TensorFlow beforehand.
Features Of Luminoth
- Luminoth is very easy to use. Once you have it, you can install it in the server you own and combine it with any of your products.
- You can customize it following your requirements to not only detect objects but also to classify models.
- It is built with TensorFlow and Sonnet. Moreover, it offers a built-in Google Cloud Platform, where you can easily train your models.
- Luminoth offers you to understand your summary easily. Visualization of the image is also a cup of tea with the built-in UI or by using a CLI.
- With Luminoth, you can use the tensorboard integration and track your regular progress. You can also evaluate results with a variety of data splits.
Delorean is a python library for enhancing DateTime. With Delorean, as the name suggests, you can easily organize the time for your python projects. All it needs is an authentic DateTime object (which should be Python-based) to work. Moreover, it can work quite well with other python DateTime libraries, as well.
Features Of Delorean
- Delorean allows you to shift DateTime from one zone to another. You can also generate and manipulate your own DateTime with Delorean.
- With Delorean, you can also use NL (Natural Language) progress for manipulating your DateTime and time as well.
- The installation process is quite easy. All you need is a pip. However, it has a quite dependence upon pytz and python-dateutil, which pip will serve you.
- This library can make the use of strings to fix a time-zone. Using strings makes it even easier to use.
- Delorean makes it easy to go backward and forward. The next_day() method makes it the process quite comfortable for you.
BeautifulSoup is a great python library. It is used for parsing. It can parse different broken HTML and XML documents, as well. It offers an easy way for web scraping by extracting direct data from HTML. Many professionals are really happy with its amazing performance. It can save quite a lot of time on your day.
Features Of BeautifulSoup
- BeautifulSoup can easily parse data out of HTML and XML. However, to do so, it needs a package and an exterior parser.
- It can be easily taught and learned. Parsing can be nicely done with simple html.parser command.
- BeautifulSoup4 comes with good support both for Python 2 and 3. However, BeautiSoup3 works with Python 2 only.
- Moreover, it offers users proper documentation of the package, which helps us to learn things quite fast.
- While working with BeautifulSoup, if you ever need any support, there is a large community to help you at an instance.
Features Of Bokeh
- With Bokeh, you can create composite statistical scenarios easily using straight-forward commands.
- You can easily render your project output in different medias such as html, server, and notebook as well.
- Bokeh is a very compatible library that can easily work with different visualization and Django applications.
- You can have custom visualizations using Bokeh. It allows you to implement interactive layouts and other styling features for your data visualization.
- Bokeh is highly flexible, and it can convert your visualization that is written in other libraries such as matplotlib, ggplot, and others.
Poetry is an easy tool for Python. It allows you to manage python packaging and dependencies. While your project depends on several libraries, Poetry allows you to handle them easily. It is compatible with different python versions. And developers are focused on making it work evenly on Windows, OsX, and Linux as well.
Features Of Poetry
- Poetry offers you to handle your projects in a systematic way. It comes with all the necessary tools that your projects might need.
- It is a simple tool. With Poetry, you can package and develop your projects with just a single line command.
- Projects you create with Poetry can be easily published to PyPi. Moreover, your projects can also be published on personal repositories.
- If there are any comprehensive dependencies in your projects, poetry can easily solve them with the exhaustive-dependency-resolver.
- Poetry remains always isolated from the user’s system. To do so, whether it uses virtualenv or create an individual set-up.
- You can easily track your projects with Poetry. It allows you to have a deep insight into your projects’ dependencies.
Gensim is another python natural library processing library. This library, however, has a moderated level of functionalities. But whatever it does, it does good. It is a smart library for unorganized topic modeling and document resemblance analysis. It uses advanced statistical ML to solve any issues. To get your handful of NLP tasks done, you should give Gensim a try.
Features Of Gensim
- Gensim comes with a simple interface. It is very easy even for the beginners to plug Gensim in their own data stream.
- This library is highly extendable. You can easily expand Gensim with any other Vector Space Algorithm.
- This NLP library can perform Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) on a number of devices.
- It is a powerful, effective, and highly scalable library. Moreover, some of the features like -LDA implementation offered by Gensim is one of a kind.
- Gensim comes with exclusive documentation and a bunch of Jupyter Notebook Tutorials as well. You can find them here.
Pandas is a python software package. It is a must to learn for data-science and dedicatedly written for Python language. It is a fast, demonstrative, and adjustable platform that offers intuitive data-structures. You can easily manipulate any type of data such as – structured or time-series data with this amazing package.
Features Of Pandas
- Pandas provide us with many Series and DataFrames. It allows you to easily organize, explore, represent, and manipulate data.
- Smart alignment and indexing featured in Pandas offer you a perfect organization and data labeling.
- Pandas has some special features that allow you to handle missing data or value with a proper measure.
- This package offers you such a clean code that even people with no or basic knowledge of programming can easily work with it.
- It provides a collection of built-in tools that allows you to both read and write data in different web services, data-structure, and databases as well.
- Pandas can support JSON, Excel, CSV, HDF5, and many other formats. In fact, you can merge different databases at a time with Pandas.
Pytil, previously known – Chicken Turtle Util is a Utility library for Python. It is a useful python package that comes with a wide range of scope for development. Pytil is always client-focused and provides great support for customers. The Pytil community is specific goal-oriented, and they always focus on contributing to society with the innovations of Python.
Features Of Pytil
- Pytil provides an easy solution to data mining or KDD (Knowledge Discovery In Data) simulation and modeling as well.
- This utility library comes with an easy automation solution for your business organizations. Level up your professional performance with Pytil.
- Pytil offers professional guidance to have a quality image and video processing. Contours, face detection, filter everything is available here.
- In Pytil, you will have trusted support from the tool itself. This is because – all the features of this tool are well tested and documented.
- Pytil also plays the role of an educational platform, as well. It doesn’t only provide variables and other functionalities. But also inspire society to use them.
26. Scikit Learn
Scikit learn is a simple and useful python machine learning library. It is written in python, cython, C, and C++. However, most of it is written in the Python programming language. It is a free machine learning library. It is a flexible python package that can work in complete harmony with other python libraries and packages such as Numpy and Scipy.
Features Of Scikit Learn
- Scikit Learn comes with a clean and neat API. It also provides very useful documentation for beginners.
- It comes with different algorithms – classification, clustering, and regression. It also supports random forests, k-means, gradient boosting, DBSCAN and others
- This package offers easy adaptability. Once you get well with the general functionalities of Scikit Learn, switching to other platforms will be no problem at all.
- Scikit Learn offers easy methods for data representation. Whether you want to present data as a table or matrix, it is all possible with Scikit Learn.
- It allows you to explore through digits that are written in hands. You can not only load but also visualize digits-data as well.
NetworkX is another python package. It offers immense solutions for studying and diagnosing graphs of all levels. It also helps you to develop and influence the architecture, motion, and functionalities of high-quality networks. It is a free python package and released under the new BSD license.
Features Of NetworkX
- NetworkX offers effective data structures for simple graphs, digraphs, multi-graphs, and a number of ideal graph standards.
- You can easily create perfect graphs and simulated networks with NetworkX using the generators included with the NetworkX package.
- With NetworkX, your network, and graph nodes can be entirely ‘anything.’ For example, your nodes can be XML data, text, and many other things.
- In NetworkX, you can also enjoy the benefits of arbitrary data such as a timestamp. Because here, edges hold these arbitrary data.
- Developers have been well aware of performance and coverage. NetworkX is well tested with 90% coverage of code.
PyGame is a wrapper module for Python. It is a set of python functions and classes dedicated to writing video games mainly. However, you can also write other multi-media applications with PyGame as well. These applications and games are highly consistent. PyGame is a community-driven project since 2000, and for beginners, it is really easy to learn.
Features Of PyGame
- PyGame is consist of both Computer Graphics and Sound libraries. These elements are designed to work together with Python language.
- It is featured with SDL (Simple DirectMedia Layer), which allows you to build real-time graphics games avoiding poor mechanisms.
- Games and applications written on PyGame are compatible with all SDL supported operating systems. They can also run on androids and tablets, as well.
- PyGame also supports the manipulation of pixel-camera, MIDI, collision detection, modern FreeType font, camera, drawing, etc.
- There is an entire community named PyWeek, where you can find tons of tutorials of PyGame.
TextBlob is one of the most simplified Python NLP libraries – for textual data processing. It is available both in Python 2.0 and Python 3.0. We mentioned the word “simplified” because this natural language processing python library comes with a very simple API, which does the job of different NLP related tasks with full efficiency. Beginners will enjoy this simple API for the first time, so as the professionals.
Features Of TextBlob
- TextBlob offers quite straight-forward tokenization. Tokenization is the process of dividing a large paragraph into many words or sentences.
- With TextBlob, it is easier than ever convert the words to their original form as they were in the dictionary. The process is called Lemmatization.
- This library offers you easily have Parts of Speech (PoS) tagging. However, this feature is noticeable in other NLP libraries, as well.
- With TextBlob, by using simple pluralize or singularize procedures, you can transform your text into single or plural.
- Also, you can easily extract different noun phrases in TextBlob using a simple noun_phrase attribute.
- TextBlob also offers you word/phrase counts, uppercase and lowercase conversion, spelling correction, translation, N-grams detection, and many more.
Mahotas is another Python image processing library. It is also known as a computer vision library, as well. Mahotas offers quite traditional functionality for image processing. It is a real fast library. And comes with a well-organized code. In fact, Mahotas offers the least dependencies to any other third party platforms.
Features Of Mahotas
- Mahotas can perform complex tasks with simpler forms of code. For example, it does a handsome job on Finding Wally with a small amount of code.
- This library offers smart computer vision features like computation, point detection, local binary patterns, and many more.
- Mahotas interface is written in Python. This is the reason why it offers fast and dynamic development of your projects.
- However, the algorithms are offered in C++. It offers more speed and hence, easy implementation of your command.
- This python library is developed, keeping the flex in mind. It is easily compatible with many other scientific software environments.
Python Packages and Libraries play a vital role in a developer’s career. Whether it is for data science or machine learning or any other aspects of the programming world, these packages and libraries are all here to cover you up. However, in addition to our combined list of python packages and libraries, there are also many other libraries and packages, as well. You can find a lot of them on PyPI. We hope our article was useful to you. Let others know as well, and share this article with your community.